These agreements provide some flexibility in implementation by developing countries as well as for WTO members (special and differentiated treatment) and least developed countries (LDCs) and net food-importing developing countries (special provisions). 16 The Uruguay Round negotiations on agriculture have not been easy and have gone beyond the traditional problems of access to imports . Negotiators discussed disciplines with respect to all measures related to agricultural trade, including domestic agricultural policy and agricultural export subsidies. The agricultural agreement includes specific commitments to reduce aid and protection in the areas of domestic support, export subsidies and market access. In the event of a conflict between the WTO agreements and the agricultural agreement, the provisions of the WTO agreement apply. 38 Agricultural subsidies are allowed under the Agriculture Agreement under specific commitments of WTO member states. Cvd surveys in agriculture have looked at some cases where countries have breached their obligations. 5 The EC has introduced significant changes to subsidies. The agricultural agreement required WTO members to reduce direct export subsidies. In the „rule-setting agreements,” negotiators reformulated the rules of action set out in the original GATT. Subsequently, the new agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures („SCM agreement”) was adopted.
Chad is vulnerable to drought, especially in its northern Belts of the Sahara and central Sahara. The south of the country is best suited to agriculture and supports the production of cereals and cotton. Its central belt is the most suitable for livestock production and grain production. Livestock plays an important role in Chad`s exports, and it is the sector on which 40% of the population depends for their living. Fishing is also an important food source and accounts for 10% of GDP. Cotton farming employs 400,000 people. Production is irregular, as is the case for many agricultural raw materials in both countries. As a result, household prices, incomes and food security are very different.
At the end of the Uruguay Round, WTO members agreed to resume agriculture negotiations in 2000, one year before the end of the initial six-year implementation period. The negotiations will examine other commitments needed to achieve the long-term goal of substantial reduction in aid and protection leading to fundamental reform. Discussions will also focus on the experience gained during the implementation period, the impact of the Uruguay Round on agriculture, non-trade issues, the special and differentiated treatment of developing countries, and progress towards a fair and market-oriented agricultural trade system. Ghana`s share of agriculture in GDP rose from 52% in the 1980s to 41% in the 1990s, while its contribution to the foreign exchange sector stabilized at 46%.